The word surgery derives from the french term “chirurgein” , which came from the Latin and in turn from Greek words “Cheir” meaning hand and “Ergon” meaning work , hence surgery means “Hand-Work”.
- Modern surgery is originated from Greece.
- Invention of Anesthesia by Robert Lister and Sequire in 1846 made the major Surgeries easy & painless.
- Invention of X-Rays , Para radiological imaging techniques are a boon to modern surgery because of which the diagnosis & location of lesion (tissue of origin) have become easy.
- Surgery has become further easier after the invention of penicillin in 1982 by Alexander Flemming & other antibiotics later.
- The present modern surgery has started its expansion after the invention of asepsis & antisepsis by Lister Joseph.
- Laproscopic & endoscopic surgery simplified the surgical procedure with less post-operative complication.
- Intra-uterine blood transfusion have solved the foetus problem.
- Radiotherapy, chemotherapy are important in the management of cancer.
- In the 20th century Kidney transplantation was successfully done.
- In 1823, the first skin grafting was done by “Bonger”.
- “Gilliese” an ENT surgeon has done extensive work on reconstruction of Nose & ear etc. So gilliese is known as “father of modern surgery”.
- Lagenbunch in 1882 done first Laproscopic Cholecystectomy.
- 1st successfull man to man blood transfusion in 1818 by “J Bundell”.
- Adrenaline introduced in 1903 as a local analgesia by “Barun”
- Intravenous anesthesia (Opium)was started from 1665 by “Jahann Sigmund”.
- Spinal anesthesia by “Corning” in 1885.
- Epidural anesthesia in 1949 by ‘Curbello”.
Ultimately observing the progress of Engineering , electronics , Nuclear , Chemistry, Physics , Radiology science have contributed for the progress of modern surgery.